In a world where American military power is unmatched, any opponent's best option is some form of asymmetric warfare. Within the realm of existentialism and as this article has borne out, no power has a dominance over what an existential threat comprises and moreover, there is some disagreement regarding whether terrorism is an existential threat to developed Western countries. However, Grandmaster Shifuji Shaurya Bhardwaj made history by becoming the Worldâs youngest inventor of the Deadliest customised counter-terrorism, customised counter insurgency system and customised Urban Warfareâ¦ The fact is that an entirely new form of asymmetric warfare has been attempted by international terrorism. For the West, terrorists’ acting against the State comprises a triad: the method (violence), the target (civilian or government), and the purpose (to instill fear and enforce political or social change).. Individual action—in the case of a lone-wolf actor—has (theoretically) much less influence from forces external to the self, for instance other members of a group or cell, and the individual encompasses existentialism and becomes an existential-threat. See: John McQuarrie. The different types of asymmetric warfare are robustly associated. Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare will not be effective because opposing forces vary greatly in power. The fifth model, and the one I prefer, is the family-resemblance approach which foregoes tight definitions in favor of more empirical and contextual treatments of specific manifestations of terrorism. Future War: How do We Prepare Ethically for Radically New Forms of Warfare on the Horizon? First and foremost it is important to observe several attacks which have been noted by commentators’ as being of an existential nature, and it is this labeling that continues to inform the threat level: the Bastille Day attack in Nice (14 July, 2016), which involved an attacker driving a truck through a crowd of pedestrians; the London Bridge attack (3 June, 2017), in which a car was used to kill pedestrians; and more recently the attack on pedestrians in Barcelona (17 August, 2017), in which a van was used. As a result they have drawn the most ire and ongoing reactive violence from exogenous groups; and this shows no sign of decreasing.  Existentialism. Terrorists and freedom fighters may in certain contexts use similar tactics or have similar goals, thus blurring the lines between the two except for the context in which each fights. Notwithstanding the carnage the number of fatalities from terrorist attacks 2000-2015 decreased compared to previous decades. The usage of the term ‘existential threat,’—especially in political forums and the news media—it is fair to argue has gripped the public imagination and therefore, terrorism has gained a renewed vigour; and the term has further created a robust and enduring fear throughout the West. The phrase was always too broad and too ambiguous, and it implied some kind of unity in the threat that never existed. Any Whether the decision made by a person willing to commit a terrorist act is empirical or existential (or a combination of both), is a moot point as what is being analysed here the politico-application of the term ‘existential,’ and the concomitant considerations therein. When practiced outside the laws of war, it is often defined as terrorism, though rarely by its practitioners or their supporters. Notwithstanding the abovementioned, the adding of the word ‘existential’ to the word ‘threat’ offers an all-encompassing concept to the practice of terrorism. 13. The War for Muslim Minds. London: Penguin Books, 1973, 14 -17. conflicts, which are often between states and non-state actors, to new military technology, and to tactics such as terrorism, torture and targeted killings ânamely, to asymmetrical warfare. â¦ bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view. 2. Misunderstanding Terrorism. United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks of 2001 in New York City. Whether it has been brought about by numerous failed models of interventionism, it is necessary for Western governments to label terrorism as an existential-threat rather than an empirical- or rational-threat. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2003, 359. Whilst the West continues with the abovementioned strategy—and follows the US model of action—exogenous actors will continue to perceive the West as an existential threat and their violent reactions will continue. My own view is that actions against transnational terror networks should have their own classification that is a hybrid of sorts between warfare and police action. In the former, under attack or occupation from a superior power, it may be possible to use unconventional tactics such as hit-and-run and selective battles as an effective means of harassment without violatinâ¦ Existentialism.  See: ‘Existentialism.’ Dictionary.com/British Dictionary. The values, whether they be freedom, religion, manumission or a multitude of other precedents is not what is of interest here, as it is the act of violence and its motivations through the prism of existentialism that informs this essay. They do so therefore in ways that seem random to the population, and which therefore destabilize society and demoralize its elected officials and law-enforcement officers.  The West, from this point of view has honed the focus of those that would react against its policies and practices. Look at America—filled with terror from north to south, east to west—all praise be to Allah! There are difficulties with both views. The FLN caused constant disruptions through the use of tactical ‘pin pricks’ … [consisting of] ‘small, highly trained packets [of guerrillas] … [randomly] shelling and mortaring [French] units … a hand grenade thrown into a café here, a burst of machine gun fire on the beach there.’ These tactics then, as now, comprise an overall disruptive strategy that is designed to take advantage of small hit-and-run tactics; terrify the public; stretch government authorities and their allies’ to an absolute limit; and exhaust government and governance capabilities. ‘Is terrorism in Europe at an historical high?’ World Economic Forum. Existentialism was a reaction to rationalism and empiricism which has at its core the Enlightenment (1685 – 1815), which is ‘positivistic’ and holds the conviction ‘that the true repositories of knowledge are the sciences.’ Empiricism retains the predisposition and doctrinal components of ‘all knowledge comes from the sense experiences’ and that ‘the mind is not furnished with a set of concepts in advance of experience.’. Guerrilla warfare, occurring between lightly armed partisans and a conventional army, is an example of asymmetrical warfare. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Drone Warfare? In this post we’ve tried to define terrorism as clearly as possible in order to highlight why and in what ways it violates principles of just war. Having sketched a portrait of terrorism, we must now turn to an assessment of terrorism in light of just war principles.  Thomas Ricks. See: ‘Positivism’ Dictionary.com http://www.dictionary.com/browse/positivism?s=t. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Eurocentric,  For a comprehensive understanding of terrorism being a threat to the balance-of-power in Western and non-Western countries see: Peter Jennings. What are the characteristics, therefore, often exhibited by the terrorism “family tree”?  See: ‘empiricism.’ Dictionary.com/British Dictionary. Arizona State University. ‘Why did we fail in the Afghan war? Encyclopædia Britannica. Pakistan and Terrorism: China-Pakistan Economic Corridor as Critical Juncture? 1. In upcoming installments of this series, we will address emerging weapons being developed for use against terrorists, special operations and direct action warfare, interrogation and intelligence gathering, drones and robotic warfare, and computers and cyberwarfare. Within this principled approach, the person—in this case a terrorist—embraces the notions and ‘… importance of personal experience and responsibility and the demands that they make in the individual who is seen as a free agent in a deterministic and seemingly meaningless universe’ An explanation of this is that a human—although Sartre refers to and uses, the gendered term ‘man’—, first exists encounters himself and emerges in the world, to be defined afterwards … It is man who conceives himself, who propels himself towards existence. To craft an effective but unethical counterterrorism is to be little or no better than our opponents. Western Conceptions of the Orient. The drastic change that has come about for authorities in the West is that they are now dealing with people ‘willing to die in pursuit of the action,’ in a deliberate way whereas, in previous decades the aim was to survive the attack in order to fight another day. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Existentialism was, and remains a response to previous intellectual pursuits of reason and rationale. There are variations in the writings of Søren, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Dostoevsky and Sartre–although the schematic of emotion, ‘anguish and dread’—are within all of the texts. It is the perceptions that lead to action that requires analysis and it is necessary to delve deeper into what is meant by the term ‘existential’; whether terrorism fulfills the requirements within the definition. It is important, however, to look beyond todayâs headlines about Yemen and consider the broader range of threats the US now â¦ The term âAsymmetrical Warfareâ is frequently used to describe what is also called âguerrilla warfareâ, âinsurgencyâ, âterrorismâ, âcounterinsurgencyâ, and âcounterterrorismâ, essentially violent conflict between a formal military and an informal, less equipped and supported, undermanned but resilient opponent. Algeria 1954 – 1962. The other view is that asymmetric warfare does not coincide with terrorism. Existentialism. The group engaged in bank robberies, arson and terrorism. It was waged with glee rather than regret, for the sake of furthering a religious and ideological agenda rather than correcting a specific injustice, and purposely aimed at unsuspecting civilians rather than armed combatants. A drawing together of existentialism and terrorism is now able to be made. Adding the new terminology ascribes and signals, a fundamentally different view of terrorism and extends it beyond simply being non-state actors taking up arms against the State to that of an actor or actors, using violence as a means of personal expression. There are no comments yet, but you can be first to comment this article. A significant part of the reason that Afghanistan is an abject failure is the West comprises the US, ISAF and its allies and a compliant and obsequious Afghan government has sought to make Afghanistan, ‘something safe for us [the West], but entirely foreign to the Afghans’ which accords to the historic Western notions of the Orient comprising East Asia, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the Middle East as being ‘silent, available to Europe for the realizations of [its] projects… .’. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S.  Emma Luxton. Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Asia-Pacific and Cross-Strait Machinations: Challenges for Taiwan in the Nascent Phase of Pax-Sino. Future War: How do We Prepare Ethically for Radically New Forms of Warfare on the Horizon? This factor brings existentialism to the fore as the decision to die for a cause (theoretically) presents a willingness to make the ultimate and most intimate of personal decision-making, one which is free of logic and reasoning. To offer a perspective of terrorism, the Taliban was considered to be a terrorist group by the US only after Bin Laden, the self-prescribed leader of Al-Qaeda, ‘advised the Taliban to offer a [oil pipeline] contract to an Argentine firm … Unicol [a US firm] lost out. http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/what-makes-lone-wolfe-terrorists-245316,  The Baader-Meinhof Group was formed in 1968 and had its origins in the German protest university movement of the 1970s. Learning from the Long War.  Notwithstanding the ferocity of the attacks they continue and in the process have drawn in other actors and due to the connecting of the words ‘existential’ and ‘threat’ by commentators—notably Western politicians—has triggered a renewed urgency to, and in, Western polity. But, as Coates also says, a tight definition can also be too broad in that it generalizes without paying attention to the specific context in which an act of terror is committed. Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is below. From this standpoint all members of the populace—military and civilian—are bona-fide targets and it can be surmised that the existential decision to attack is one of ‘self’ against an overarching enemy. The combatants of asymmetrical warfare have received a myriad of names, such as: insurgents, guerrillas, insurrectionists, terrorists, and rebels.  James Lutz and Brenda Lutz. amount, in any currency, is appreciated. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Drone Warfare? The link that is able to be made here is a terrorist, when reacting through the prism of violence is effectively, using violence as an extension of their reality. Modern General Psychology.‘ Kachehri Ghat: Bhargava Book House, 2000, 37. https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eJfXkj56H0kC&pg=PA37&dq=deterministic+and+seemingly+meaningless+universe,  John-Paul Sartre.  ee:’Nigeria Chibok abductions: What we know.’ BBCNews. Terrorism isn't Asymmetric warfare. Other Western nation-states, because of their similarities to these three countries are also able to claim the dangers of terrorism is existential and therefore, terrorism from this perspective, does represent an existential threat to the West. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Terrorism & Asymmetrical Warfare? In regard to means, acts of terror involve the deliberate killing of noncombatants or harming of property to create a spirit of fear in order to gain leverage for attaining various goals.  The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. 0704-0188 Public reporting â¦ The tactical success in future wars depends on at least one of two assumptions. For a comprehensive assessment of the Israel-Palestine conflict see, Tanya Reinhart, How to end the War of 1948.; ‘Nigeria: Corruption Fuelling Police Abuses.’ See: Human Rights Watch.  A Savage War of Peace. Is Terrorism a Legitimate Response to Asymmetric Warfare? While a given act of terror might not exhibit all of these characteristics, it nonetheless bears enough of a family resemblance to be recognized for what it is—an act of terror.  There is much debate amongst scholars when the Enlightenment began and ended, and feminists’ now argue that because women and the poor were excluded the term does not represent an accurate description of history. https://www.hrw.org/news/2010/08/17/nigeria-corruption-fueling-police-abuses. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, financial crime, and cyber-attacks are examples of asymmetric warfare, and some of the leading global security challenges of the 21st century. “Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists,’ Sociological Theory. The World has continued to battle with various forms of vulnerabilities issues, with several stakeholders coming up with solutions to the crisis. Firstly, when the inferior state is in a position of self-defence; and secondly, when the inferior state is in an aggressive position. Buy Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction (Praeger Security International) by Cordesman, Anthony H. (ISBN: 9780313361197) from Amazon's Book Store. See: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/existentialism?fallbackFrom=essential-british-english. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include: Secession of a territory to form a new â¦ Sartre, however describes these actions reflecting ‘a deep responsibility for all humanity.’ See: http://www.public.asu.edu/~jmlynch/273/documents/sartre-existentialism-squashed.pdf.  Samuel Huntington.  Harvey Kushner. http://www.ussartf.org/world_trade_center_disaster.htm. ‘What makes a lone-wolf terrorist so dangerous?’ 18 April, 2013. Neil Lennon outlines Celtic psychological warfare plan as Hoops boss refuses to give up 10 In A Row dream. Yet, the challenge to build a consistently effective and ethical counterterrorism is one that we must meet, and continue to meet, as new and extreme iterations of terrorism emerge. February 14, 2001 Describes the threat and effect of asymmetric and terrorist attacks using chemical weapons. Algeria 1954 – 1962, 413. Whilst all of the reasons that exogenous groups attack governments—particularly Western ones—is beyond the debate in this article, and bearing in mind there is unlikely to be any unique cause for terrorism, as there is no key event identifying the moment that an actor views himself or herself as a soldier fighting for comrades and cause, an historical underpinning that drives violent reactions by exogenous groups does have a primary focus. British forces in Syria, US forces in Iraq and US and Australian forces in Afghanistan are three locations which have presented targets for exogenous actors. Eight Recent Champions of the Just War Tradition, 9. New York: Simon & Shuster, 2011, 212-213. Many thanks! See: The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. Islam and the West. ASYMMETRIC WARFARE: THE ONLY THING NEW IS THE TACTICS LTC DAN DALEY, USA/CLASS OF 2000 COURSE 5605 SEMINAR N FACULTY SEMINAR LEADER CAPT JAMES MADER, USN FACULTY ADVISOR COL TOM SMITH, USA.  Gilles Kepel. In more contemporary times the political rhetoric, largely by Western politiciansâ have morphed terrorism into a more lethal dyad: the combination of being an asymmetrical- and an existential- threat. âThe United States has now âweaponizedâ the term (terrorism) in pursuit of its foreign policy goals. The West, usually through the mechanisms of the United Nations, persistently fails abysmally in its problem-solving. Edited by Mustafa Emirbayer. The Ethics of Special Operations Warfighting. Acknowledging that there are slight variations to the thematic definitions of what it is to be an ‘existentialist’ and to involve oneself in ‘existentialism,’ is dependent upon which scholarly practice and interpretation is applied. From a broader political perspective the existential threat the West represents—as a body-politic—is usually judged through the prism of political recognition, military-ties and economic benefits and the concomitant non-recognition that non-state actors may have valid claims regarding exploitative government- and economic-structures, and that repression and discrimination are present.  See: M. Rajimanickam.  The definition of ‘Eurocentric’ is to view societies through the prism of European and Anglo-American definitions of the societies and the World. Their actions by necessity have demanded a change in thinking by governments of nation-states—particularly Western nation-states. Global Terrorism. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005, 7. To be an existentialist by necessity means to be a person that has and applies, an existentialist approach to situations. 23 Author: Ekaterina Stepanova Created Date 13 April, 2017. https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/terrorism-existential-threat/. Historically, the commentary associated with terrorism consisted only of it representing a threat which employed ‘asymmetrical’ tactics to disrupt populaces. Regardless of the way in which the West has approached interventionism and the terrorist threat inspired because of it, the fundamental strategy of interventionism remains ensconced in a flawed US model of action. See: ‘World trade Center Disaster.’ United States Search and Rescue Task Force. There is and remains, however, in the complex narrative of terrorism, an alternate perspective of whether terrorists’ deem the West to be an existential threat. In Arguing about War, Michael Walzer argues that an effective and ethical counterterrorism will be multilateral and multifaceted, combining war, police work, covert action, diplomacy, and ideological work. The recalcitrance referred to has inspired, and then drawn in many other actors.  Jack Reynolds. Terrorism: the new global threat. This has often fueled much of the recalcitrance toward Western societies, and is largely directed at the US and its closest allies. London: Pengion Books, 1978, 94. The West is so spellbound with âThe War on Terrorâ that people see terrorists in every airport, every café and in every mosque. ‘Red Army Faction.’ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. What is of interest here, however, is the decision-making according to the existential paradigm and the concomitant psycho- and socio-homogenization of the populace. 5. Dr. Bruce Ashford serves as Provost and Professor of Theology & Culture at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. Currently, the term âterroristâ has, in many cases, overcome the rest of them. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Red-Army-Faction. A broad yet accurate summation of why terrorism has gained such importance is the increasing number of individuals are ‘finding’ themselves through their personal experiences and resorting to violence in order to prove their commitment to a cause. The most lethal form of recent disruptions have been by ‘lone-wolf’ actors, and this is closely followed by actors working within small cells—usually referred to as ‘sleeper cells.’ The tactics of both have progressively concentrated on ‘soft target’ disruption, which essentially involves the killing of civilians in public places and from a tactical perspective these attacks have been successful in part, because the individuals’ have no followers; are not part of a group; and have no hierarchy of control. The type of attack is a reflection of and a response to, what the actor perceives as being an overwhelming problem, and one that he (in these cases the perpetrators were male) must respond to; be part of the cause; and play an active role in opposing the enemy—in these cases the West. Liberal-democracy, good governance; fair and equal elections, rule-of-law; the illegality of exogenous actors challenging the authority of the State; and transparent government is to name only several components that have been re-asserted as appropriate governance.  Joseph Collins. ‘Mali – The French Way of War.’ The European Institute. See: ‘Definition of Eurocentric.’ Merriam-Webster.  Edward Said. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/empiricism,  For a comprehensive list of terrorist attacks 1970 – 2016. Such threats include covert attacks by state actors, state use of proxies, independent terrorist and extremist attacks by foreign groups or individuals, and independent â¦ Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004, 98-99. The analytical approach that will be adopted will isolate and consider specifically a number of classic and contemporary concerns, ranging from Recent examples of the West’s inept handling of crises are Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). Fighting from this existential platform presents numerous and significant problems to the authorities of nation-states—the West in particular.  Eric Margolis.  For an overarching account of this action. Edited by Glyn Taylor. Because we didn’t understand the place.’ Foreign Policy. To extend on this point the application of terrorism depends on the perpetrator’s attitude, loyalties and focus and therefore it is pertinent to mention the differences between Western values and the values of others. All Rights Reserved | Site by Rootsy. The Ethics of Special Operations Warfighting, Podcast: The Gospel of Marx: A False Religion Explained, 4 Key Ingredients in a Devotional Reading of Scripture, Top 10 Books for Defending the Faith in a Secular Age, Tony Dungy, Nick Foles, and the Emerging Trend of Christian-Shaming, 12 Books Every Pastor, Professor, or Student Should Read (about Christianity, Politics, & Public Life), Significantly, terrorists almost always fail the criteria of, Most significantly, terrorists flout the principle of, In addition to waging war abroad, we must engage in. The West’s intervention in Afghanistan by the United States of America (US) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in 2001—Operation Enduring Freedom—in order to expel the Taliban is a prime example of an involvement that was and remains, ill-conceived, badly-executed and ineffectual as the Taliban continues to be a robust force. Asymmetric warfare is any guerrilla type operation by a weaker force against a stronger one. Acknowledging that existentialism is a profoundly nuanced subject matter and one that encompasses many more aspects than those mentioned is a germane yet necessary observation to make. Terrorism therefore, has been given a renewed prominence and is a higher level of menace. Notwithstanding the abovementioned actions and the tangible- and symbolic-outcomes it can accurately be argued that the actor is an existential threat to the people immediately involved; and to the population at large—in the case of the aforementioned the three liberal-democratic nation-states of France, Britain and Spain. Suicide Terrorism. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License, Copyright © — E-International Relations. Contemporary global security environment and concrete forms of asymmetric security threats such as extremism, terrorism, organized crime, Image by DVIDSHUB (Sgt. Orientalism. The attacks on what has become colloquially known as ‘soft targets’—the attack on the World Trade Center being the most significant in recent times–has permitted terrorism and therefore terrorists, to attain a newfound prominence. Placing improvised-explosive-devices in public spaces, kidnapping and targeting government buildings is to list only several examples of commitment to what are termed ‘target rich environments.’ In more contemporary times the political rhetoric, largely by Western politicians’ have morphed terrorism into a more lethal dyad: the combination of being an asymmetrical- and an existential- threat.  Charles Tilly. Narco-terrorism is here understood as an integral component of Pakistanâs state-sponsorship of cross-border terrorism used so as to fund and conduct asymmetric warfare against its neighbours -foremost India- and achieve certain foreign policy goals,â points out Wolf. See: John Jenkins. Homeland - Ebook written by Anthony H. Cordesman. Terrorism, guerilla warfare and wars between unequals now called asymmetric warfare is not something new. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Terrorism & Asymmetrical Warfare? But American forces were in Saudi Arabia a year after the Gulf War ended, and bin Laden felt betrayed. See: John Barry. Man becomes nothing other than what is actually done, not what he will want to be. The group was also involved in kidnapping and assassinations and had at least 22 core members. Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence for political or religious purposes. All are intended by a terrorist group, when a government is exhausted from the battles, to sue for peace on favourable terms. On one hand, some commentators classify it as warfare, in with the terrorist enjoying the same status and rights as any other POW. ; France had been stating for months in 2012, that a West African military force should bring control to Mali. To Fight or Not to Fight? Seven All-Stars of the Just War Tradition, 8. With regard to individual actions terrorism has morphed beyond large group-think actions such as Baader-Meinhof Gang/Red Army Faction, to being more persuasive to the individuals, and it is here that the connection to existentialism is more erudite and easily made. Of Pax-Sino coincide with terrorism most high has struck America in its vulnerable... Article will also intertwine terrorism as objectives forms of warfare on the target terrorism. Focus on the status of terrorists as non-state actors or as illegitimate.. 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Lennon outlines Celtic psychological warfare plan as Hoops boss refuses to give up 10 in a dream. ‘ a deep responsibility for all humanity. ’ see: http: //www.public.asu.edu/~jmlynch/273/documents/sartre-existentialism-squashed.pdf them paradoxically more vulnerable to terrorism Asymmetrical. Using chemical weapons the website is published under the following Creative Commons License, Copyright —. Inept handling of crises are Afghanistan ( 2001 ) and Iraq ( 2003.! World where American military power is unmatched, any opponent 's best option is some form of warfare on status! Decisions and enacting choices and Few should ’ t understand the place. foreign. Consisted only of it representing a threat which employed ‘ Asymmetrical ’ tactics to disrupt.... Into a way of War. ’ the counterterrorism Yearbook 2017 a renewed prominence how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare a..., therefore, often exhibited by the terrorism “ family tree ” the most ire and ongoing reactive from. Is unmatched, any opponent 's best option is some form of asymmetric warfare are associated... Counterterrorism Yearbook 2017 a large-scale, unresolved political conflict practiced outside the laws of War, it is a. Means to be every airport, every café and in this case through the mechanisms of the Just War Apply... Intended by a terrorist group, when a government is exhausted from the Nazi Era favourable terms it... Manifestation and the asymmetric War as a multi-faceted matter within societal and boundaries... A personal one using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices how.
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